Image Scaling

13.2. Image Scaling#

One imporatant image operation is scaling, that is, change the number of pixels along each direction of the image. First consider the so-called downsampling of an image by a factor of 2. While we could simply extract every second pixel in each row and each column, a slightly better option is to average the values in each 2-by-2 block:

# Code from previous section
using PyPlot
using Statistics
A = imread("sample_photo.png")
B = mean(A, dims=3)[:,:,1]
function imshow_scale(A)
    # Like imshow(A) but scales the values to [0,1] and supports grayscale
    A .-= minimum(A)            # Scale and shift to [0,1]
    A ./= maximum(A)
    if ndims(A) < 3
        A = reshape(A, size(A,1), size(A,2), 1)
    if size(A,3) == 1
        A = repeat(A, 1, 1, 3)  # Set R=G=B for grayscale
function image_downsample(A)
    # For simplicity, ignore last row/column if size is odd
    sz = size(A)
    sz2 = sz  2
    B = (A[1:2:2sz2[1], 1:2:2sz2[2], :] .+
         A[2:2:2sz2[1], 1:2:2sz2[2], :] .+
         A[1:2:2sz2[1], 2:2:2sz2[2], :] .+
         A[2:2:2sz2[1], 2:2:2sz2[2], :]) ./ 4

C = copy(B);
for i = 1:4
    C = image_downsample(C);
    subplot(2,2,i), imshow_scale(C)
    title("$(i) levels downsampling")

Upscaling an image, that is, increasing its size, is a more difficult operation. Is is obviously impossible to know the intensity of the added pixels, but assuming the variations are small one can for example interpolate between the given values. One simple interpolation is bilinear, which for a factor of 2 simply becomes averaging between neighboring pixel values:

function image_upsample(A)
    sz = size(A)
    B = zeros(Float32, 2sz[1]-1, 2sz[2]-1, sz[3])
    B[1:2:end, 1:2:end, :] .= A
    B[2:2:end-1, 1:2:end, :] .= (A[1:end-1,:,:] .+ A[2:end,:,:]) ./ 2
    B[1:2:end, 2:2:end-1, :] .= (A[:,1:end-1,:] .+ A[:,2:end,:]) ./ 2
    B[2:2:end-1, 2:2:end-1, :] .= (A[1:end-1,1:end-1,:] .+ A[1:end-1,2:end,:]
                               .+  A[2:end,1:end-1,:] .+ A[2:end,2:end,:]) ./ 4
    return B

D = copy(C);
for i = 1:4
    D = image_upsample(D);
    subplot(2,2,i), imshow_scale(D)
    title("$(i) levels upsampling")

The resulting image is of course much less detailed that the original, but that was expected since we reduced its size by a factor of \(2^4=16\) in each direction:

subplot(1,2,1); imshow_scale(B); title("Original");
subplot(1,2,2); imshow_scale(D); title("Down+Up sampling");